Tirumala darshan

Ted and myself are traveling towards Tirupati by a south bound train. We are seated in A/C three tier compartment. This is fictitious but the conversation is to evoke interest.

Hullo I am ted from New York. Oh I am mrs Balakrishnan from Mumbai nice meeting you.

Ted : I have come on a personal tour to India . I have seen many places in Mumbai and now I am going to visit Lord of seven Hills Lord Venkateshwara.

Myself: I too am going for Tirumala Darshan by IRCTC.Are you part of our crowd.

Ted : No I booked a ticket for South bound train. I learnt that we get down at Renigunta and take a bus/car to the Hills.

Oh. is it so? But have you booked Tirumala darshan tickets, Tirumala room booking or Tirumala accommodation or Tirupati Tirumala devasthanams rooms. Nowadays everything is available online. You should have booked 300rs ticket in Tirumala online booking to get special darshan.

Ted : I heard different views about large crowd, availability of tickets, accommodation etc so I decided to go there and decide.

Myself : You can book online three hours in advance for Tirumala 300 darshan and ac rooms in Tirumala through Tirumala official website.

Ted : hesitatingly why?

Myself : Daily lakhs of people visit Tirumala city to have a glimpse of this god. TTDC Tirumala is finding it very difficult to manage the crowds if we reach there without any booking. Even you have to stand in long queues for free Darshan, for buying Tirumala 300tickets , 100rs rooms in Tirumala hills or 150rs rooms in Tirumala hills.

There are nandakam guest house Tirumala, ahobali mutt Tirumala accommodation, dormitory in Tirumala etc but availability is not assured. For your stay in Tirumala you have to go prepared so that you don’t get messed up and frustrated . You should enjoy every part of your journey. Okay you have one and half days so you can book any time. Now let me give you some information about Tirumala.

where is Tirumala located ?

Tirumala is situated 3200 feet above sea level and covers an area of 10.33 sq. miles.

which are the peaks surrounding the hills?

The seven peaks of seshachalam range Eastern Ghats viz Seshadri, Neeladri, Garudadri, Anjanadri, Vrushabadri, Narayanadri and Venkatadri. The temple of Lord Venkateshwara is on the seventh peak. on the southern banks of sri Swamy Pushkarini, a holy water tank.

What is Tirumala?

Tirumala is a census town in Chitoor district in Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The town is part of Tirupati urban Development Authority and located in Tirupati Mandal of Tirupati revenue Division.It is a town where Tirumala Venkateshwara temple is located or it is the abode of the lord.

what is census town?

Census town is a town with more than 5000 people.75% are working outside agriculture. and has a maximum population density of 400 per km.

What is Silathoranam ?

Silathoranam is a natural arch and distinctive geological wonder is located in Tirumala at 1 km distance of Tirumala Venkateshwara temple.

How do you reach Tirumala temple?

You can reach Tirumala on foot, road, rail, air.

What is the significant feature of Tirumala?

The hill contains seven peaks representing seven heads of Adisesha the king of Nagas or serpents. Hence the temple is known as temple of seven Hills. The lord is also known as lord of kali yuga.

what is kali yug Does it represent the age of the earth?

kali yug is the” Age of downfall” is the fourth and final era in the spiritual evolution of man. This is also called iron age or kalyug. Yug denotes time cycle. Kali yug means period where there is lot of strife, quarrel, discord, contention. In Brahma purana it is stated that Kalyug will end in Feb 6898.

what is the dress code for Tirumala temple?

The dress code is white kurta, dhoti for males and sarees for females.

what is the cusisine of Tirumala?

Tirupati is known for its world famous Tirupati laddus. It is prasadam at lord Venkateshwara temple.

You told you can go by foot ? How?

There are two paths to travel on foot. These paths are called Sopanamargas.To fulfil their vows to lord Venkateshwara people take this route. The paths are completely roofed and pass through seven hills which are part of seshachalam hills. The two paths are Alipiri methu and Srivari methu. Alipari methu stats from Alipiri Padmanabam temple . it has 3550 steps. It is old route. The distance is 11kms.
The Srivari Methu originates from Srinivasa Mangapuram 15 kms. from Tirupati. it is 2.1 kms long . This trail has 2400 steps and shorter than Alipiri.

What is the revenue of this temple?

The revenue of this temple is approx.. Rs2894 crores in a financial year. A six day Vedic ritual is being conducted from August10 to August 16. This ritual is called Astabandhana Balalaya Maha Samprokshanam‘ ritual. This is a ritual held once in twelve years. It was decided only to allow 30000 devotees to the temple. Hence there was a revenue loss from Rs3/- crore to Rs73 lakhs per day besides gold and other donations. A complete ban on the entry of devotees was announced by TTD. Similarly online ticket issue was halted for this period.

What are the neighboring districts of Tirumala?

It is 435km from Vijayawada, 571 Km from Hyderabad, 781 km from vishakapatnam.

what is the right time to visit Tirumala?

people flock to this place all through the year. There are no natural barriers or seasonal hazards for reaching or staying here in spite of hot and humid summers , cool winters and heavy rains.

Which are the nearby temples, sight seeing places their timings, fees, significance ?

Sri Govindraja swamy temple : Sri Govindraja Swamy temple is at 1 km from Tirupati Railway station and half km from RTC bus stand. It is believed that Sri Govindraja Swamy was the elder brother of Venkateshwara. During the Muslim invasion in South Govindrajaswamy from Chidambaram was brought to Tirupati till the situation calmed down. After the situation calmed down govindrajaswamy was brought back to Chidambaram. However Govindrajaswamy appeared in the dream of Saint Ramanuja Acharya and asked him to take him back to Tirupati because he wanted to settle down in Tirupati. Then the saint asked the king to build the temple and houses for people working there. There is also a story which says Govindrajaswamy performed the divine marriage of Padmavati and Venkateshwara. he took a huge loan from kubera King of wealth . However his left hand shows four lines which indicate he is expected to return four times the amount So it is said he helps in managing wealth.People to increase and manage wealth visit this temple. This temple is open from 5a.m. to 9 p.m. and entry ticket is Rs5/-. After visiting Lord Venkateshwara and Padmavati people visit this temple and then proceed to sri kalahasti.

padmavathi temple :

There are many stories in the puranas to say lord Venkateshwara is actually lord Vishnu who came to earth seeking goddess Lakshmi who has descended as goddess Padmavati. The temple is 5 km from RTC bus stand and 5.5 km from railway station/ entry fee is Rs5/- The temple is open from 5 a.m. to 9 p.m. The stories are given here,

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Important Details about Andhra PRADESH

Andhra Pradesh a state in Indian union located on South east of India. The other details about Andhra Pradesh is given in Question answer form so that you read and get knowledge and remember..

when is Andhra Pradesh formation day?

Andhra Pradesh is the first linguistic state and once the fifth largest state in the Indian union was formed on 1.11.1956 with the unification of Andhra state and Telegu speaking areas of erstwhile Hyderabad state.

What is Andhra Pradesh area and Andhra Pradesh population?

Nevertheless, Andhra Pradesh is the seventh largest state in India with area of 160205 Km square and tenth most populous state in India.

Which natural boundaries or states surround Andhra Pradesh?

Most noteworthy, Andhra Pradesh is surrounded by Telangana in North west, Odisha and Chhattisgarh in North east, Karnataka in west , Tamil nadu in South and Bay of Bengal in East.

Which are Andhra Pradesh Districts list?

However, Andhra Pradesh has 13 districts viz. Anantpur, Guntur, Kurnool, Srikakulm, chitoor, cudappah, Prakasam,

river under blue ksy

Vishakapatnam, East Godavari, Krishna, Nellore, Vizianagaram, West Godavari. The coastline of Andhra Pradesh is 974 Km next to Gujrat. The thirteen districts are divided into 50 revenue divisions.

Which is Andhra Pradesh capital ?

Capital of Andhra Pradesh is Hyderabad (Dejure 2.3.2026) Amravati (proposed)

hich is Andhra Pradesh official language?

Andhra Pradesh language ae Telugu .

Which are the largest Andhra Pradesh cities?How many cities are there in Andhra Pradesh?

Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada are the two largest cities in Andhra Pradesh. There are 31 cities with 16 municipal corporations and 14 municipalities.

Which are Andhra Pradesh temples ?

Tirumala Venkateshwara temple in Tirupati, Simhachalam, Annavaram, Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, Mahachaitya at Amravati, Sri Kalahasteeshwara temple at Sri kalahasti, Shahi Jamia Masjid at Adani, Ameen peer Dargah at cudappah, Gunadala church in Vijayawada, Buddhist centers at Amravati, Kanaka Druga Temple in Vijayawada, Prashant Nilayam in Puttapurthi.

Which are Andhra Pradesh tourism spots?

Beaches of Vishakapatnam like Rushikonda, Mypadu, Suryalenka etc

Hill stations in Andhra Pradesh are Araku valley, Horseley Hills

Island of Konaseema in the Godavari River Delta

Caves : Borra caves, Undavaliti caves, Belum caves

Peak : Armakonda

which is Andhra Pradesh state symbol?

The emblem Poorna Ghatam is Andhra pradesh symbol.

Which is the song of Andhra Pradesh?

Maa Telugu Thallika in praise of telugu Thallli

Which is Andhra Pradesh state animal?


Which is Andhra Pradesh state bird?

Rose ringed parakeet

Which is Andhra pradesh dance form?


Which is the famous flower and tree of Andhra Pradesh?

Famous flower is Jasmine and famous tree is neem.

which are Andhra Pradesh regions?

The two regions are coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema.

Which is Andhra Pradesh famous food?

Sweet Pootharekelu a very costly sweet consumed by Royal families.

Which is the Rail Junction of Andhra Pradesh?


Which is the cleanest Railway Station of Andhra Pradesh?


Which is the highest broadgauge railway station in the country?


Which is the largest Andhra Pradesh seaport?


Which are the famous seaports ?

Krishnapatnam Port , Gangavaram Port and Kakinada port

Which are Andhra Pradesh Airports ?

Visakhapatnam Airport, Vijayawada airport at Gannavaram, Rajamahendravaram Airport at Madhurapudi, cuddapah airport at Puttapurthi and Tirupathi airport at Tirupati

What is Andhra Pradesh literacy rate ?

The overall literacy rate of Andhra Pradesh is 67.4% as per 2011 Indian census.

Which are Andhra Pradesh University?

The central universities of Andhra Pradesh are All India Institute of medical Sciences, IIM Visakhapatnam, IIT Tirupati, NIT Tadepalligudem, IITDM Kurnool, Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy, NIDV, central university of Andhra Pradesh, IIIT Sri city, IISER Tirupati, Agriculture University Guntur and IIFT Kakinada. The Government of Andhra Pradesh established Rajiv Gandhi University of knowledge technologies to cater to education of rural youth. As per University grants Commission GITAM, K L University and Vignan Universities are deemed universities. There are 18 Universities in the state providing education in Horticulture, Law, Medicine, Vedic and veterinary. Andhra University is the oldest university established in 1926.

Which are the sanctuaries and zoological parks of Andhra Pradesh?

Coringa, Krishna wildlife sanctuary, Nagarjunasagar-srisailam tiger reserve, Kambalakonda wildlife sanctuary, sri Venkateshwara zoological park and sri Indira Gandhi zoological park. Atapakka bird sanctuary, Nelapattu bird sanctuary, pullicat lake bird sanctuary.

What is anna canteen Vijayawada ?

Anna canteen Vijayawada is a project to launch 203 canteens in 110 municipalities. This project was inaugurated by chief minister Chandrababu Naidu. This project is completely hi-tech setup to global standards. The designs interiors and ambience meet food courts with international standards. Electronic token system, computers with internet connectivity, cc cameras, facial recognition of beneficiaries etc All 203 canteens in the state will be monitored online. For a day meal i.e. breakfast, lunch, dinner government will spend Rs73/- per person and the beneficiary will spend Rs15/- It is estimated that 205 lakh people will avail this benefit daily.

Where is Andhra Pradesh high court located?

Andhra Pradesh high court is located in Justice city Nelapadu a neighborhood of Amaravati the new capital of Andhra Pradesh.

who is the present Andhra Pradesh governor?

The present Andhra Pradesh Governor is Shri. Biswabhusan Harichandan. He is the 23rd governor of Andhra Pradesh.

Who is the present Andhra Pradesh Mukhyamantri?

Sri Y S Jagan Mohan Reddy is the current chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh

When is the right time to visit Andhra Pradesh?

December January February are the winter months. Since Andhra Pradesh has long coastline winters are not so severe. However Lambasingi in Visakhapatnam receive snowfall so it is called Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh.

what is ap agriculture?

Andhra Pradesh economy is mainly based on livestock and agriculture.60% of population is engaged in agriculture and livestock. Rice is the main produce and staple diet of AP. Hence it is known as rice bowl of India. Apart from Rice Jowar, Bajra, maize, minor millet ,Coarse grain, varieties of pulses, oilseeds such as sunflower and peanuts, sugarcane , cotton, chillies , pepper, , mango, nuts and tobacco.

I have given many important details Anyhow if you have any questions you may write to me on sunda10@ideasforsure.com.

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LIST OF STATES AND CAPITALS for General Knowledge Questions

This post states and capitals list is an introduction to knowing India. where is India located? Giving details about its area, population, capital, states and union territories? This is just revising the topics we have already studied.

After introspecting about my passion to myself, I learnt my passion is to earn lot of money , travel to temples and sight seeing places, and buy things which are unique and attract people’s attention when displayed. I know it can only be a dream because my health will not permit. So I thought of writing about India, the states and union territories. I wanted to learn about the places and also feel for myself my presence in that place. No doubt we have learnt some things in Geography but it is just a very small portion. Now through my posts I will be discovering what I have not known about India. There may be some things you would like to share because you had the opportunity to visit or stay. I would welcome your ideas through my email sunda10@ideasforsure.com or comment below.

How I started this writing about states and capitals list?

First of all, When I started States and capitals list my mind asked me this question. Why? Who does not know? Also, I agree we all know many things but we forget also so many . So to refresh our memory is not bad. Furthermore is it not an exercise for our brain? Thus, when we brush up, the dust which had piled up on this knowledge is gone and we remember everything . Finally, I call my blog information for this reason. I can give information about topics I know, I want to know and share. So let me share this with you. Now all of you know about India, its location on map, its area population etc . But reviewing it for a change does not matter isn’t it? we will also be revising about states and capitals list .

Details about india

where is India located? Give details about its area, population, capital, states and union territories?

First of all India is located in South Asia.

Now, Its Area is 32,87,263 sq km.

Also, Population is 133.92 crores (2017) world bank

The Capital is Delhi

Its States are 29

Also, Union territories are 7

Secondly, India secular federal republic governed in a Parliamentary system of democracy.

Now, India is the second most populated country in the world with one fifth of world population. Also,it is the seventh largest country by area

Also, India occupies 2.41% of world’s land and 17.5% of world’s population. 72.2% of the population reside in rural areas. Hence India lives in villages. One out of every six people in this planet live in India.

Further, each state and Union territory has its own capital i.e. administrative, judicial and legislative.

Most noteworthy, Administrative capital means all offices of executive government are located here. Also,Legislative capital is the place where the state assembly convenes. Further, Judicial capital is where territorial high courts are located.

Thus all states and two union territories Puducherry and National capital Delhi has elected forms of government and legislature. So,they headed by Chief Minister who elected for five years and other Union Territories directly ruled by central government. Even,under the State reorganization act of 1956 States reorganized on the basis of language. However, Official language is Hindi

Lets see the29 states and capitals and the language spoken . Please see below list of states and capitals in alphabetical order.

State capitals Language
Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad (Dejure 2.6.2026) Amravati (proposed) Telugu & Urdu
Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar Miji, Apotanji, Merdukpen, Tagin, Adi, Honpa, Bangini-Nishi
Assam Dispur Assamese
Bihar Patna Hindi
Chhattisgarh Raipur Hindi
Goa Panaji Marathi & Konkani
Gujrat Gandhi Nagar Gujrati
Haryana Chandigarh Hindi
Himachal Pradesh Shimla Hindi & Pahari
Jammu & Kashmir Srinagar (Summer) Jammu (winter) Kashmiri, Urdu, Dogri, Ladakhi, Pahari, Punjabi & Dadri
Jharkhand Ranchi Hindi
Karnataka Bangalore Kannada
Kerala Thiruvananthapuram Malayalam
Madhya Pradesh Bhopal Hindi
Maharashtra Mumbai Marathi
Manipur Imphal Manipuri
Meghalaya Shillong Khasi, Jaintia, Garo
Mizoram Aizawl Mizo & English
Nagaland Kohima Ao, Konyak, Angami, Sema & Lotha
Orissa Bhubaneshwar Oriya
Punjab Chandigarh Punjabi
Rajasthan Jaipur Rajasthani & Hindi
Sikkim Gangtok Bhutia, Hindi, Nepali, Lepcha, Limbu
Tamil Nadu Chennai Tamil
Telangana Hyderabad Telugu
Tripura Agartala Bengali, Tripuri, Manipuri, kakborak
Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Hindi
Uttarakhand Dehradun Hindi
West Bengal Kolkata Bengali

List of Union territories and Capitals

Union Territories Capitals
Andaman & Nicobar Port Blair
Chandigarh Chandigarh
Dadra & Nagarhaveli Silvassa
Daman & Diu Daman
Delhi Delhi
Lakshadweep Kavaratti
Puducherry Pondicherry

Finally, after having read this state and capital list you will be wondering what next? What do you think ?Have you any additional information you can email me on sunda10@ideasforsure.com

outbound links


states and capital list

Inbound link

Names of Prime Ministerhttps://ideasforsure.com/name-of-prime-ministers-of-india/

I would like to say “Thank you” for reading this article.

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Names of Indian prime Ministers from 1947-2019 and their achievements and also honors received by them

Indian prime ministers name, work of prime ministers and legacy left behind them

First of all, In this election season it is worthwhile to pay tribute to our honorable Indian prime ministers name and remember their achievements. We always remember our prominent prime ministers. To remember in chronological order is not possible. I decided to write this post. I have also given links .

First of all, the prime Minister of India is the Chief executive of the Government of India. Further,President appoints the Prime Minister who is usually Head of party or alliance having majority in loksabha.

Now.a list of Prime Ministers of the Republic of India has 15 prime ministers, 17 including Gulzarilal Nanda who twice acted in the role.

1.The first prime minister of free India was Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

 Birth date & Birth place : 14.11.1889 in Allahabad

His parents : A wealthy barrister Shri Motilal Nehru &  Smt. Swaruprani

His spouse :  Smt.Kamala Nehru a freedom fighter

His siblings : Vijayalakshmi pandit & Krishna Hutheesing

Jawaharla Nehru belonged to  Kashmiri Pandit family.

His children : Smt. Indira Gandhi

Honors received : Bharat Ratna

Books : Discovery of india, Letters from her father to his daughter etc are some of his famous works.

He was prime minister from 1947 to 1964. From 15.8.1947 to 17.4.1957 he was prime minister for the first time and appointed by Lord Mountbatten. From 17.4.1957 to 27.5.1964 he was appointed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad the first President of Free India.

Education: He completed his studies as barrister in Great Britain and practiced in Allahabad high court.

First of all, his education was not much significant. Further, home tuitions from Governess and tutors till he was 16 years old. Thereafter he went to Harrow a leading English school for two years. Then to Trinity college Cambridge to earn a honors degree in natural science. After leaving Cambridge, he qualified as a barrister. After two years of study in inner temple, London where in his own words he passed his exam with ‘neither glory nor ignominy’. He felt he was in half hazy world neither in England nor in India.  He himself said’ I have become a queer mixture of East and West out of place everywhere at home nowhere’.


1.He brought Modern values and ways of thinking to suit Indian conditions .

2. Ethnic and religious diversities was no obstacle to secularism and basic unity of India .

3. He introduced modern age of scientific discovery and technological development.

4. He aroused in his people an awareness of the necessity of social concern with the poor and the outcast and of respect for democratic values.

 5. Thus,he brought reforms to the ancient Hindu civil code that finally enabled Hindu widows to enjoy equality with men in matters of inheritance and property.

6. He helped to frame the Indian constitution.

7. He helped in integrating the Indian Princely states into united India

8. he helped in resettling refugees post partition

9.Under his leadership election commission of India set up

10. He signed Indus water Treaty between India and Pakistan

11. Moreover, Sound Foreign Policy was setup during his period.

12. Bhakra Nangal Dam

13. Bhilai Steel plant

14. Bhokaro steel limited

15. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre were all setup

16.Planning commission formulated India’s five-year plans initiated by Netaji Subash Chandra Bose. Jawaharlal Nehru appointed as chairman of Planning commission in 1950

17.Establishment of institutes of higher learning like All India Institute of medical sciences

18. Setting up of Indian institute of technology

19. Indian Institute of management set up.

20. Setting up of National institute of technology

Date of Death : 27.5.1964 (Heart attack)

2. The Second & Fourth prime Minister of Free India was Shri Gulzarilal nanda(acting)

He was prime minister from 27.05.1964 to 9.06.1964. Again he was prime Minister from 11.01.1966 to 24.01.1966. He appointed by Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan the second President of Free India.

Date of Birth : 4.7.1898 in PunjabParents: Shri Bulaqui Nanda, Smt. iswari Devi nandaSpouse: Smt.Lakshmichildren: Two sons and one daughtereducation : research scholar in labor problems from Allahabad University.

Honors received:

Bharat ratna, padma Vibushan Proud past Alumini from Allahabad University Alumini Associati

achievements :

Firstly , Served as prime minister for 13 days two terms first after death of Nehru in 1964 and Shastri in 1965 when country had suffered  potential danger and serious threats after war with china in 1962 and war with Pakistan in 1965.Also, Ban on slaughter of cows supported by him.

Date of death :15.01.1998 at the age of 99

3. The second/third Prime Minister of India is Lal Bahadur Shastri

He was Prime Minister from 9.06.1964 to 11.01.1966 appointed by president Sarvapalli  Radhakrishnan.

Birth date & Birth Place:2.10.1904 at Mugalsarai

Wife : lalita Devi

Parents :Shri Sharada Prasad Shrivastava, Smt. Ramdulari Devi

Children : Anil, hari Krishna, Kusum,suman,sunil and Ashok

His education: He learned scriptures from kashi Vidyapeeth and became scholar. He was conferred the title Shastri

Honors received: Shastri, Bharat ratna

His achievements :

Signing of NO War agreement with president Ayub Khan of Pakistan

Firmness in the outbreak of hostilities with Pakistan over the disputed Kashmir   region.

He coined the slogan jai Jawan jai Kisan

White revolution : formation of amul diary the leading diary in India Shastri Vrat : To give away one days meal to the poor

Green Revolution: Adoption  of  new methods of growing crops

  Firm stand  regarding Defence budget.

Tashkent declaration signed  

Memorial ‘Vijay Ghat’ built after him. All other memorials built in his honor is available here            

Date of Death : January11,1966 at Tashkent Uzbekistan (Heart attack)

4.  The third/fifth & sixth/eighth Prime Minister of free India was Mrs Indira Gandhi

She was Prime Minister from 24.1.1966 to 24.3.1977 appointed by Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, V. V. Giri

Again she was Prime Minister from 14.1.1980 to 31.10.1984 appointed by  Nilam Sanjeeva Reddy.

Birth date & Birth Place : 19.11.1917 at Allahabad

parents : Shri Jawaharlal Nehru & Smt. kamala Nehru

spouse : Shri Feroze Gandhi

children: Shri Rajiv Gandhi , Late Shri. Sanjay Gandhi

daughter in laws : Smt. Sonia Gandhi & Smt. Maneka Gandhi Grandsons : Rahul Gandhi & Varun Gandhi

grand daughter: Smt. Priyanka Gandhi vadra honors received : first stateswoman and first woman prime minister

Woman of the millennium. And Bharat ratna

education :

First of all, she was tutored at home till 1934 attending several schools intermittently till her matriculation. Then to Belur math headquarters  of Ramakrishna Mission staying with her guardian swami Rangananda and studied in Visva Bharati institute in  shanti Niketan. Thereafter attending oxford university to complete her graduation. But being weak in studies could not obtain her degree. But later honored with a degree from oxford university

Her achievements:

1. Facilitating the Green revolution. Shortage of food supply Norman Borlough’s  Green revolution ideology adopted. Shifting of agriculture to industrial sector with the use of HYV seeds , tractors and advanced methods of farming .

2.Nationalising of 14 private sector Banks

3. Indo Pakistan war of 1971 Liberation of  Bangla Desh

4. Shimla agreement signed between India and Pakistan which brought settlement of Kashmir issue through peaceful means and conversion of ceasefire line into line of control between India and Pakistan

5.Also Ending privy purse given to Royalties since 1947.

6.she nationalized the coal, steel,  copper, refining, cotton textile industries.

7. Nationalisation of Oil industries

8. Garibi hatao programme
9. Her challenge to the syndicate, the group of provincial satraps of the congress.

10. Smiling Buddha Nuclear Test.

11.Declaration of emergency in 1975

12 operation blue star to strip clean the golden temple

13 Second lady head after Sirimavo Bandaranayke

14 Endorsement of ZOPFAN Declaration and disintegration of SEATO alliance to revive ties with south east Asian countries.

Additional achievements

15. Thus, She made changes in constitution relating to wages Equal wages for equal work to both men and women.

16. She shared strong ties with Soviet Union and strained ties with United states.

17. Meghalaya, Manipur, Haryana, Tripura, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh given statehood.  Chandigarh and Arunachala Pradesh treated as Union territories. 

18.India included in Soviet space program Interkosmos where First Indian Rakesh kumar Sharma landed in space.    

19. She was openly against Israel in their war with Palestine.

20.She was Iron lady of India. Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee compared her to Goddess Durga. 

21. She was a very good friend of Britain’s Lady Margaret Thatcher

22. Most noteworthy was her refusal to bow down to hegemony of America thereby resulting in refusal of food and other aids to India unless India supported America in their war against Vietnam.

23.India’s decisive victory over Pakistan in the war of 1971.     

24.Launching of operation flood the world’s biggest diary development program which resulted in milk deficient India to surpass USA in milk production.   

25. For Insurgency in Nagaland Indira Gandhi unleashed a powerful military offensive.

26.Indian army crush Militant communist uprising 

27.Air strikes in its own civilian territory during Mizo uprising

28.Presiding over three five-year plans as prime minister two of which succeeded in meeting targeted growth.

She was assassinated on 31.101984 by her own body guard.

4. Morarji Desai the fourth/sixth prime minister appointed by President Basappa Danappa Jatti (acting) Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy

Date of Birth & Birthplace : 29.2.1896 at Valsad Bombay Presidency

Tenure :1977 to 1979 he became prime minister at the age of 81.He headed the coalition Government .

Spouse : Gujraben Desai Children :Five

Parents : Ranchodji Desai, Vajiaben Desai

Education : Graduated from Bombay university Attended Wilson college

Books : Miracles of urine therapy, Nature Cure etc.

Honors received : Bharat ratna & Nishan-e-Pakistan

Achievements :

1.He was the first Chief minister to become prime Minister and Dy. Prime minister.

2.Improved relationship with neighbour and arch rival Pakistan and restored normal relations with China.

3.His Government undid many amendments made to constitution during emergency.

4.It made difficult for future Governments to impose National Emergency.

5.5.After India’s Nuclear Test in 1974 Desai kept India’s Nuclear reactor stating that ” they will never be used in atomic bombs and I will see to it if I can help it “

6.Ardent follower of mahatma Gandhi principles & Morals

7.He used to write Postcard himself as a Prime Minister.

8.He was Chancellor of Gujrat Vidyapith before becoming Prime Minister. So even after becoming prime Minister he used to visit and stay at vidyapith in October.

9 He withdrew intervention in Public Distribution System and Rationing shops literally hurt due to availability of cheap sugar and oil.

10.Conducting meeting with Farmers in Khaira District lead to establishment of Amul Cooperative movement.

11.He a practitioner of Urine Therapy and claimed it was a perfect medical solution to millions of Indians. He claimed that he drank a pint of his urine daily.

12. First leader not to represent Indian national congress party.

Date of death : 10.4.95 at the age of 99

5.Charan Singh the fifth/seventh prime Minister appointed by president Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy.

Tenure :1979-1980

Date of Birth : 23.12.1902 at Noopur Uttar Pradesh

Parents : Not Known

Spouse : Smt. Gayathri Devi

Children : 6 children

Honors received : Champion of India’s Peasants

Books :The Gandhian blue Print, India’s Economic policy

He did not face the LokSabha even for a single day in his short tenure.

Achievements :

First of all abolished Landlordism and instilled economic and political power in few families.

Further, he was against casteism.

Moreover, he was appearing a Socialist by professing to nationalize the Sugar industry but in private he had gone into deal with sugar barons. The man appointed as receiver was cane inspector Mansingh his own brother.

Date of death :29.5.1984

6.Rajiv Gandhi was the seventh/ninth prime minister:

Tenure :31.10.1984 to 2.12.1989 appointed by President Zail Singh & R venkatraman

Date of Birth & Birth place : 20.8.1944 from Bombay presidency

Parents : Feroze Gandhi, Indira gandhi

Spouse : Sonia Gandhi

Children : Rahul, Priyanka

Brother : Sanjay

Honors received : Bharat ratna, Indira Gandhi Prize

Education : He did his schooling from Welham Boys School and Doons School and wanted to study A Levels. Also, he joined Trinity College of Cambridge for Engineering but did not complete. Further, ,worked as Professional Pilot for Indian Airlines.


He was the youngest Prime Minister till date.

He enhanced support for Science and technology.

Import Quotas reduced.

Tariffs and Taxes on industries based on technology particularly airlines. computer, telecommunications and defence reduced.

Launching of C DOT(Centre for development of Telematics) Wikipedia by sam pitroda in 1984.

Establishment of MTNL & VSNL telephones by Government.

52nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1985. Anti Defection law contained in the tenth schedule of Constitution amended. This put an end to then 35 years of legislative anarchism in India. It made floor crossing almost impossible.

To expand and modernise higher education programs he declared a National policy for Education in 1986.

He founded Jawaharlal Navodaya Vidyalaya system to educate rural section of society. It is a central Government institution which provides free residential education from 6th to 12th grade.

He ensured 25% reservation in Private educational Institutes

He started operation blackboard to improve educational infrastructure in primary schools all over India.

IGNOU Indira Gandhi National Open university was a by product of this policy.

In 1986 he created MTNL The special PCO in the rural sector was of increase help for the locals.

Reduce licence raj implemented. This helped individuals and business to acquire capital.

He was the founder of Panchayati raj and founder of Ministry for the environment. He introduced approval of Lok pal bill.

Introduced 108 emergency ambulance services.

100 days of employment for one member of every family in villages.

He imposed president Rule in Punjab and gave free hand to KPS Gill(DGP Punjab) and solved Punjab problem.

Achievement of high GDP growth Inspite of 3 consecutive drought situation in the country.

He laid the foundation fo Economic Liberalization.

Additional achievements

He took steps to prevent brain drain and also brought back scientists and technocrats to India.

Assam Accord a memorandum of understanding signed between government of India and leaders of Assam movement over illegal migrant issue.

Punjab Accord signed between Rajiv Gandhi and Akali leader Harcharan Singh Longeval in 1985 and it was significant after anti Sikh riots

India Srilanka peace Accord :Rajiv Gandhi made sincere attempts to solve Tamil issue in Sri lanka.

His initiative to drive India towards modernism and his motivation to pull the masses out of poverty and dreamed of India becoming IT Super power.

Pioneer of Digital India and Computer man of India

Firstly he sowed the seed of eventful IT revolution and his speeches was the idea of taking India leap forward into the 21st century. He was sure that Technology drive can make it happen. He emphasized growth in two areas IT and Telecom.


  1. Shah bano case
  2. India peace Keeping Force going to Sri Lanka to save from LTTE
  3. Bofors Scandal
  4. Bhopal tragedy where Anderson allowed to escape.
  5. Died on 21.5.1991 he was just 46 years old death.

7.Shri V P Singh was the tenth Prime Minister of India

Tenure : 2.12.89 to 10.11.90 i.e. 343 days He appointed by president Venkatraman

date of Birth and place of birth : 25.06.1931 Allahabad

Parents : Raja Bahadur Ram Gopal Singh, Rani Raj Kanwar

Children & Spouse : Abhay Singh, Ajay Singh, Smt Sita Kumari

Educational Qualification : He graduated from Fergusson College, Pune


First of all, he started “Jan Morcha” to fight against corruption

Further,he created a coalition Front called National Front

Most noteworthy, he imposed Mandal Commission through which fixed quota reservation for socially backward castes called ‘ other backward classes’ raised from 27% to 49.5%

Moreover, he single handedly removed dacoity from Chambal region of Uttar Pradesh.

Also,he initiated telecom reforms in 1986.

Not only that,he also exposed the gold smugglers thriving in Konkan.

However he gained popularity because of his tussle with the Ambani’s and bachchan.

Shri Chandrashekar singh the ninth/eleventh prime minister appointed by President R Venkatraman

enure : 10.11.90 to 21.6.91 223 days

Date of irth & birthplace : 1.7.1927 ibrahimpatti

Spouse Smt Duja Devi

Parents : Children : Two children

Books Rahbari ke sawal, Heal your mind and body, My jail diary, Supreme Doctor etc.A newspaper “Young india ” started by him.

Education : Not known

His handling the balance of payment situation successfully by hypothecating gold to IMF/World Bank.

He proved and showed to the world that Coalition governments do not last.

Shri P V Narsimha Rao the tenth/twelfth prime minister appointed by President R Venkatraman

Date of birth & Place of birth : 28.6.21 ,Hyderabad

Tenure : 21.6.91 to 16.5.1996 4 yrs 33 days

Parents : Pamulapurthi Sitarama Rao, Pamulapurthi Rukmani

Spouse : Satyamma Rao

Children : Eight

Education : Graduation from Osmania University

Law from Hislop College

Honors received : Father of Indian Economic reforms

Chanakya of Modern India

Achievements :

First of all,he knew ten Indian languages and seven foreign languages

Secondly, he was the first non Hindi speaking prime minister

Further,he along with Shri Man Mohan Singh shaped India’s New Economic Policy saving the country from Debt and Economic Crisis.

Foreign Direct Investments encouraged.

Efforts made to privatize public sector and reduce fiscal deficit.

Introduction of SEBI Act of 1992.

Pokhran Nuclear test done successfully.

Starting national Stock Exchange as a Computer based trading system in 1994 which served as an instrument to leverage reforms of India’s other stock exchange.

Reducing tariff

streamlining procedure for foreign direct investment

Rao launched Look East foreign policy which brought India closer to ASEAN

Babri Mosque riots , Bombay blasts, Latur earthquake all took place in his tenure and applauded for dealing with this tactfully by using modern technology, and resources to deal with the situations.

Date of Death :30.11.1992 92 years old

Atal Bihari Vajpayee was the eleventh/thirteenth prime minister first time and fourteenth/sixteenth prime minister second time

He appointed by President S.D.Sharma first time and President K R Narayan second time

Tenure : 1st time 16.5.1996 -1.06.19960 i.e. 16 days

2nd time 19.3.1998 to 10.10.1999.10.10.1999 to 22.5.2004

D/Birth & Birthplace : 25.12.1924 ,Gwalior

Parents : Krishna Devi & Krishna Bihari Vajpayee

Education : He did his graduation in Hindi, English, Sanskrit from Victoria College, Gwalior. He did his MA in Political Science from DAV college Kanpur. He interested in foreign affairs.

Books written :

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