Ted and myself are traveling towards Tirupati by a south bound train. We are seated in A/C three tier compartment. This is fictitious but the conversation is to evoke interest.
Hullo I am ted from New York. Oh I am mrs Balakrishnan from Mumbai nice meeting you.
Ted : I have come on a personal tour to India . I have seen many places in Mumbai and now I am going to visit Lord of seven Hills Lord Venkateshwara.
Myself: I too am going for Tirumala Darshan by IRCTC.Are you part of our crowd.
Ted : No I booked a ticket for South bound train. I learnt that we get down at Renigunta and take a bus/car to the Hills.
Oh. is it so? But have you booked Tirumala darshan tickets, Tirumala room booking or Tirumala accommodation or Tirupati Tirumala devasthanams rooms. Nowadays everything is available online. You should have booked 300rs ticket in Tirumala online booking to get special darshan.
Ted : I heard different views about large crowd, availability of tickets, accommodation etc so I decided to go there and decide.
Myself : You can book online three hours in advance for Tirumala 300 darshan and ac rooms in Tirumala through Tirumala official website.
Ted : hesitatingly why?
Myself : Daily lakhs of people visit Tirumala city to have a glimpse of this god. TTDC Tirumala is finding it very difficult to manage the crowds if we reach there without any booking. Even you have to stand in long queues for free Darshan, for buying Tirumala 300tickets , 100rs rooms in Tirumala hills or 150rs rooms in Tirumala hills.
There are nandakam guest house Tirumala, ahobali mutt Tirumala accommodation, dormitory in Tirumala etc but availability is not assured. For your stay in Tirumala you have to go prepared so that you don’t get messed up and frustrated . You should enjoy every part of your journey. Okay you have one and half days so you can book any time. Now let me give you some information about Tirumala.
where is Tirumala located ?
Tirumala is situated 3200 feet above sea level and covers an area of 10.33 sq. miles.
which are the peaks surrounding the hills?
The seven peaks of seshachalam range Eastern Ghats viz Seshadri, Neeladri, Garudadri, Anjanadri, Vrushabadri, Narayanadri and Venkatadri. The temple of Lord Venkateshwara is on the seventh peak. on the southern banks of sri Swamy Pushkarini, a holy water tank.
What is Tirumala?
Tirumala is a census town in Chitoor district in Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The town is part of Tirupati urban Development Authority and located in Tirupati Mandal of Tirupati revenue Division.It is a town where Tirumala Venkateshwara temple is located or it is the abode of the lord.
what is census town?
Census town is a town with more than 5000 people.75% are working outside agriculture. and has a maximum population density of 400 per km.
What is Silathoranam ?
Silathoranam is a natural arch and distinctive geological wonder is located in Tirumala at 1 km distance of Tirumala Venkateshwara temple.
How do you reach Tirumala temple?
You can reach Tirumala on foot, road, rail, air.
What is the significant feature of Tirumala?
The hill contains seven peaks representing seven heads of Adisesha the king of Nagas or serpents. Hence the temple is known as temple of seven Hills. The lord is also known as lord of kali yuga.
what is kali yug Does it represent the age of the earth?
kali yug is the” Age of downfall” is the fourth and final era in the spiritual evolution of man. This is also called iron age or kalyug. Yug denotes time cycle. Kali yug means period where there is lot of strife, quarrel, discord, contention. In Brahma purana it is stated that Kalyug will end in Feb 6898.
what is the dress code for Tirumala temple?
The dress code is white kurta, dhoti for males and sarees for females.
what is the cusisine of Tirumala?
Tirupati is known for its world famous Tirupati laddus. It is prasadam at lord Venkateshwara temple.
You told you can go by foot ? How?
There are two paths to travel on foot. These paths are called Sopanamargas.To fulfil their vows to lord Venkateshwara people take this route. The paths are completely roofed and pass through seven hills which are part of seshachalam hills. The two paths are Alipiri methu and Srivari methu. Alipari methu stats from Alipiri Padmanabam temple . it has 3550 steps. It is old route. The distance is 11kms. The Srivari Methu originates from Srinivasa Mangapuram 15 kms. from Tirupati. it is 2.1 kms long . This trail has 2400 steps and shorter than Alipiri.
What is the revenue of this temple?
The revenue of this temple is approx.. Rs2894 crores in a financial year. A six day Vedic ritual is being conducted from August10 to August 16. This ritual is called Astabandhana Balalaya Maha Samprokshanam‘ ritual. This is a ritual held once in twelve years. It was decided only to allow 30000 devotees to the temple. Hence there was a revenue loss from Rs3/- crore to Rs73 lakhs per day besides gold and other donations. A complete ban on the entry of devotees was announced by TTD. Similarly online ticket issue was halted for this period.
What are the neighboring districts of Tirumala?
It is 435km from Vijayawada, 571 Km from Hyderabad, 781 km from vishakapatnam.
what is the right time to visit Tirumala?
people flock to this place all through the year. There are no natural barriers or seasonal hazards for reaching or staying here in spite of hot and humid summers , cool winters and heavy rains.
Which are the nearby temples, sight seeing places their timings, fees, significance ?
Sri Govindraja swamy temple : Sri Govindraja Swamy temple is at 1 km from Tirupati Railway station and half km from RTC bus stand. It is believed that Sri Govindraja Swamy was the elder brother of Venkateshwara. During the Muslim invasion in South Govindrajaswamy from Chidambaram was brought to Tirupati till the situation calmed down. After the situation calmed down govindrajaswamy was brought back to Chidambaram. However Govindrajaswamy appeared in the dream of Saint Ramanuja Acharya and asked him to take him back to Tirupati because he wanted to settle down in Tirupati. Then the saint asked the king to build the temple and houses for people working there. There is also a story which says Govindrajaswamy performed the divine marriage of Padmavati and Venkateshwara. he took a huge loan from kubera King of wealth . However his left hand shows four lines which indicate he is expected to return four times the amount So it is said he helps in managing wealth.People to increase and manage wealth visit this temple. This temple is open from 5a.m. to 9 p.m. and entry ticket is Rs5/-. After visiting Lord Venkateshwara and Padmavati people visit this temple and then proceed to sri kalahasti.
padmavathi temple :
There are many stories in the puranas to say lord Venkateshwara is actually lord Vishnu who came to earth seeking goddess Lakshmi who has descended as goddess Padmavati. The temple is 5 km from RTC bus stand and 5.5 km from railway station/ entry fee is Rs5/- The temple is open from 5 a.m. to 9 p.m. The stories are given here,
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Andhra Pradesh a state in Indian union located on South east of India. The other details about Andhra Pradesh is given in Question answer form so that you read and get knowledge and remember..
when is Andhra Pradesh formation day?
Andhra Pradesh is the first linguistic state and once the fifth largest state in the Indian union was formed on 1.11.1956 with the unification of Andhra state and Telegu speaking areas of erstwhile Hyderabad state.
What is Andhra Pradesh area and Andhra Pradesh population?
Nevertheless, Andhra Pradesh is the seventh largest state in India with area of 160205 Km square and tenth most populous state in India.
Which natural boundaries or states surround Andhra Pradesh?
Most noteworthy, Andhra Pradesh is surrounded by Telangana in North west, Odisha and Chhattisgarh in North east, Karnataka in west , Tamil nadu in South and Bay of Bengal in East.
Which are Andhra Pradesh Districts list?
However, Andhra Pradesh has 13 districts viz. Anantpur, Guntur, Kurnool, Srikakulm, chitoor, cudappah, Prakasam,
Vishakapatnam, East Godavari, Krishna, Nellore, Vizianagaram, West Godavari. The coastline of Andhra Pradesh is 974 Km next to Gujrat. The thirteen districts are divided into 50 revenue divisions.
Which is Andhra Pradesh capital ?
Capital of Andhra Pradesh is Hyderabad (Dejure 2.3.2026) Amravati (proposed)
hich is Andhra Pradesh official language?
Andhra Pradesh language ae Telugu .
Which are the largest Andhra Pradesh cities?How many cities are there in Andhra Pradesh?
Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada are the two largest cities in Andhra Pradesh. There are 31 cities with 16 municipal corporations and 14 municipalities.
Which are Andhra Pradesh temples ?
Tirumala Venkateshwara temple in Tirupati, Simhachalam, Annavaram, Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, Mahachaitya at Amravati, Sri Kalahasteeshwara temple at Sri kalahasti, Shahi Jamia Masjid at Adani, Ameen peer Dargah at cudappah, Gunadala church in Vijayawada, Buddhist centers at Amravati, Kanaka Druga Temple in Vijayawada, Prashant Nilayam in Puttapurthi.
Which are Andhra Pradesh tourism spots?
Beaches of Vishakapatnam like Rushikonda, Mypadu, Suryalenka etc
Hill stations in Andhra Pradesh are Araku valley, Horseley Hills
Island of Konaseema in the Godavari River Delta
Caves : Borra caves, Undavaliti caves, Belum caves
Peak : Armakonda
which is Andhra Pradesh state symbol?
The emblem Poorna Ghatam is Andhra pradesh symbol.
Which is the song of Andhra Pradesh?
Maa Telugu Thallika in praise of telugu Thallli
Which is Andhra Pradesh state animal?
Which is Andhra Pradesh state bird?
Rose ringed parakeet
Which is Andhra pradesh dance form?
Which is the famous flower and tree of Andhra Pradesh?
The two regions are coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema.
Which is Andhra Pradesh famous food?
Sweet Pootharekelu a very costly sweet consumed by Royal families.
Which is the Rail Junction of Andhra Pradesh?
Which is the cleanest Railway Station of Andhra Pradesh?
Which is the highest broadgauge railway station in the country?
Which is the largest Andhra Pradesh seaport?
Which are the famous seaports ?
Krishnapatnam Port , Gangavaram Port and Kakinada port
Which are Andhra Pradesh Airports ?
Visakhapatnam Airport, Vijayawada airport at Gannavaram, Rajamahendravaram Airport at Madhurapudi, cuddapah airport at Puttapurthi and Tirupathi airport at Tirupati
What is Andhra Pradesh literacy rate ?
The overall literacy rate of Andhra Pradesh is 67.4% as per 2011 Indian census.
Which are Andhra Pradesh University?
The central universities of Andhra Pradesh are All India Institute of medical Sciences, IIM Visakhapatnam, IIT Tirupati, NIT Tadepalligudem, IITDM Kurnool, Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy, NIDV, central university of Andhra Pradesh, IIIT Sri city, IISER Tirupati, Agriculture University Guntur and IIFT Kakinada. The Government of Andhra Pradesh established Rajiv Gandhi University of knowledge technologies to cater to education of rural youth. As per University grants Commission GITAM, K L University and Vignan Universities are deemed universities. There are 18 Universities in the state providing education in Horticulture, Law, Medicine, Vedic and veterinary. Andhra University is the oldest university established in 1926.
Which are the sanctuaries and zoological parks of Andhra Pradesh?
Coringa, Krishna wildlife sanctuary, Nagarjunasagar-srisailam tiger reserve, Kambalakonda wildlife sanctuary, sri Venkateshwara zoological park and sri Indira Gandhi zoological park. Atapakka bird sanctuary, Nelapattu bird sanctuary, pullicat lake bird sanctuary.
What is anna canteen Vijayawada ?
Anna canteen Vijayawada is a project to launch 203 canteens in 110 municipalities. This project was inaugurated by chief minister Chandrababu Naidu. This project is completely hi-tech setup to global standards. The designs interiors and ambience meet food courts with international standards. Electronic token system, computers with internet connectivity, cc cameras, facial recognition of beneficiaries etc All 203 canteens in the state will be monitored online. For a day meal i.e. breakfast, lunch, dinner government will spend Rs73/- per person and the beneficiary will spend Rs15/- It is estimated that 205 lakh people will avail this benefit daily.
Where is Andhra Pradesh high court located?
Andhra Pradesh high court is located in Justice city Nelapadu a neighborhood of Amaravati the new capital of Andhra Pradesh.
who is the present Andhra Pradesh governor?
The present Andhra Pradesh Governor is Shri. Biswabhusan Harichandan. He is the 23rd governor of Andhra Pradesh.
Who is the present Andhra Pradesh Mukhyamantri?
Sri Y S Jagan Mohan Reddy is the current chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh
When is the right time to visit Andhra Pradesh?
December January February are the winter months. Since Andhra Pradesh has long coastline winters are not so severe. However Lambasingi in Visakhapatnam receive snowfall so it is called Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh.
Andhra Pradesh economy is mainly based on livestock and agriculture.60% of population is engaged in agriculture and livestock. Rice is the main produce and staple diet of AP. Hence it is known as rice bowl of India. Apart from Rice Jowar, Bajra, maize, minor millet ,Coarse grain, varieties of pulses, oilseeds such as sunflower and peanuts, sugarcane , cotton, chillies , pepper, , mango, nuts and tobacco.
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This post states and capitals list is an introduction to knowing India. where is India located? Giving details about its area, population, capital, states and union territories? This is just revising the topics we have already studied.
After introspecting about my passion to myself, I learnt my passion is to earn lot of money , travel to temples and sight seeing places, and buy things which are unique and attract people’s attention when displayed. I know it can only be a dream because my health will not permit. So I thought of writing about India, the states and union territories. I wanted to learn about the places and also feel for myself my presence in that place. No doubt we have learnt some things in Geography but it is just a very small portion. Now through my posts I will be discovering what I have not known about India. There may be some things you would like to share because you had the opportunity to visit or stay. I would welcome your ideas through my email email@example.com or comment below.
How I started this writing about states and capitals list?
First of all, When I started States and capitals list my mind asked me this question. Why? Who does not know? Also, I agree we all know many things but we forget also so many . So to refresh our memory is not bad. Furthermore is it not an exercise for our brain? Thus, when we brush up, the dust which had piled up on this knowledge is gone and we remember everything . Finally, I call my blog information for this reason. I can give information about topics I know, I want to know and share. So let me share this with you. Now all of you know about India, its location on map, its area population etc . But reviewing it for a change does not matter isn’t it? we will also be revising about states and capitals list .
Details about india
where is India located? Give details about its area, population, capital, states and union territories?
First of all India is located in South Asia.
Now, Its Area is 32,87,263 sq km.
Also, Population is 133.92 crores (2017) world bank
The Capital is Delhi
Its States are 29
Also, Union territories are 7
Secondly, India secular federal republic governed in a Parliamentary system of democracy.
Now, India is the second most populated country in the world with one fifth of world population. Also,it is the seventh largest country by area
Also, India occupies 2.41% of world’s land and 17.5% of world’s population. 72.2% of the population reside in rural areas. Hence India lives in villages. One out of every six people in this planet live in India.
Further, each state and Union territory has its own capital i.e. administrative, judicial and legislative.
Most noteworthy, Administrative capital means all offices of executive government are located here. Also,Legislative capital is the place where the state assembly convenes. Further, Judicial capital is where territorial high courts are located.
Thus all states and two union territories Puducherry and National capital Delhi has elected forms of government and legislature. So,they headed by Chief Minister who elected for five years and other Union Territories directly ruled by central government. Even,under the State reorganization act of 1956 States reorganized on the basis of language. However, Official language is Hindi
Lets see the29 states and capitals and the language spoken . Please see below list of states and capitals in alphabetical order.
Indian prime ministers name, work of prime ministers and legacy left behind them
First of all, In this election season it is worthwhile to pay tribute to our honorable Indian prime ministers name and remember their achievements. We always remember our prominent prime ministers. To remember in chronological order is not possible. I decided to write this post. I have also given links .
First of all, the prime Minister of India is the Chief executive of the Government of India. Further,President appoints the Prime Minister who is usually Head of party or alliance having majority in loksabha.
Now.a list of Prime Ministers of the Republic of India has 15 prime ministers, 17 including Gulzarilal Nanda who twice acted in the role.
1.The first prime minister of free India wasPandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
date & Birth place : 14.11.1889 in Allahabad
His parents : A wealthy barrister Shri Motilal Nehru & Smt. Swaruprani
His spouse : Smt.Kamala Nehru a freedom fighter
His siblings : Vijayalakshmi pandit & Krishna Hutheesing
Jawaharla Nehru belonged to Kashmiri Pandit family.
He was prime minister from 1947 to 1964. From 15.8.1947 to 17.4.1957 he was prime minister for the first time and appointed by Lord Mountbatten. From 17.4.1957 to 27.5.1964 he was appointed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad the first President of Free India.
Education: He completed his studies as barrister in Great Britain and practiced in Allahabad high court.
First of all, his education was not much significant. Further, home tuitions from Governess and tutors till he was 16 years old. Thereafter he went to Harrow a leading English school for two years. Then to Trinity college Cambridge to earn a honors degree in natural science. After leaving Cambridge, he qualified as a barrister. After two years of study in inner temple, London where in his own words he passed his exam with ‘neither glory nor ignominy’. He felt he was in half hazy world neither in England nor in India. He himself said’ I have become a queer mixture of East and West out of place everywhere at home nowhere’.
1.He brought Modern values and ways of thinking to suit Indian conditions .
2. Ethnic and religious diversities was no obstacle to secularism and basic unity of India .
3. He introduced modern age of scientific discovery and technological development.
4. He aroused in his people an awareness of the necessity of
social concern with the poor and the outcast and of respect for democratic
5. Thus,he brought reforms to the ancient Hindu civil code that finally enabled Hindu widows to enjoy equality with men in matters of inheritance and property.
6. He helped to frame the Indian constitution.
7. He helped in integrating the Indian Princely states into
8. he helped in resettling refugees post partition
9.Under his leadership election commission of India set up
10. He signed Indus water Treaty between India and Pakistan
11. Moreover, Sound Foreign Policy was setup during his period.
12. Bhakra Nangal Dam
13. Bhilai Steel plant
14. Bhokaro steel limited
15. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre were all setup
16.Planning commission formulated India’s five-year plans initiated by Netaji Subash Chandra Bose. Jawaharlal Nehru appointed as chairman of Planning commission in 1950
17.Establishment of institutes of higher learning like All
India Institute of medical sciences
18. Setting up of Indian institute of technology
19. Indian Institute of management set up.
20. Setting up of National institute of technology
Death : 27.5.1964 (Heart attack)
2. The Second & Fourth prime Minister of Free India wasShri Gulzarilal nanda(acting)
He was prime minister from 27.05.1964 to 9.06.1964. Again he was prime Minister from 11.01.1966 to 24.01.1966. He appointed by Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan the second President of Free India.
Date of Birth :
4.7.1898 in PunjabParents: Shri Bulaqui Nanda, Smt. iswari Devi nandaSpouse: Smt.Lakshmichildren: Two sons and one daughtereducation : research scholar in labor problems from Allahabad University.
Bharat ratna, padma Vibushan Proud past Alumini from Allahabad University Alumini Associati
Firstly , Served as prime minister for 13 days two terms first after death of Nehru in 1964 and Shastri in 1965 when country had suffered potential danger and serious threats after war with china in 1962 and war with Pakistan in 1965.Also, Ban on slaughter of cows supported by him.
Date of death
:15.01.1998 at the age of 99
3. The second/third Prime Minister of India is Lal Bahadur Shastri
He was Prime Minister from 9.06.1964 to 11.01.1966 appointed
by president Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan.
grand daughter: Smt. Priyanka Gandhi vadra honors received : first stateswoman and first woman prime minister
Woman of the millennium. And Bharat ratna
First of all, she was tutored at home till 1934 attending several schools intermittently till her matriculation. Then to Belur math headquarters of Ramakrishna Mission staying with her guardian swami Rangananda and studied in Visva Bharati institute in shanti Niketan. Thereafter attending oxford university to complete her graduation. But being weak in studies could not obtain her degree. But later honored with a degree from oxford university
1. Facilitating the Green revolution. Shortage of food supply Norman Borlough’s Green revolution ideology adopted. Shifting of agriculture to industrial sector with the use of HYV seeds , tractors and advanced methods of farming .
2.Nationalising of 14
private sector Banks
3. Indo Pakistan war
of 1971 Liberation of Bangla Desh
4. Shimla agreement
signed between India and Pakistan which brought settlement of Kashmir issue
through peaceful means and conversion of ceasefire line into line of control
between India and Pakistan
5.Also Ending privy purse given to Royalties since 1947.
the coal, steel, copper, refining, cotton
7. Nationalisation of
8. Garibi hatao
9. Her challenge to the syndicate, the group of provincial satraps of the
10. Smiling Buddha
emergency in 1975
12 operation blue
star to strip clean the golden temple
13 Second lady head
after Sirimavo Bandaranayke
14 Endorsement of ZOPFAN Declaration and disintegration of SEATO alliance to revive ties with south east Asian countries.
15. Thus, She made changes in constitution relating to wages Equal wages for equal work to both men and women.
16. She shared strong
ties with Soviet Union and strained ties with United states.
17. Meghalaya, Manipur, Haryana, Tripura, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh given statehood. Chandigarh and Arunachala Pradesh treated as Union territories.
18.India included in Soviet space program Interkosmos where First Indian Rakesh kumar Sharma landed in space.
19. She was openly
against Israel in their war with Palestine.
20.She was Iron lady of India. Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee compared her to Goddess Durga.
21. She was a very
good friend of Britain’s Lady Margaret Thatcher
22. Most noteworthy was her refusal to bow down to hegemony of America thereby resulting in refusal of food and other aids to India unless India supported America in their war against Vietnam.
victory over Pakistan in the war of 1971.
operation flood the world’s biggest diary development program which resulted in
milk deficient India to surpass USA in milk production.
25. For Insurgency in
Nagaland Indira Gandhi unleashed a powerful military offensive.
26.Indian army crush
Militant communist uprising
27.Air strikes in its
own civilian territory during Mizo uprising
three five-year plans as prime minister two of which succeeded in meeting
She was assassinated on 31.101984 by her own body guard.
4. Morarji Desai the fourth/sixth prime minister appointed by President Basappa Danappa Jatti (acting) Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy
Date of Birth & Birthplace : 29.2.1896 at Valsad Bombay Presidency
Tenure :1977 to 1979 he became prime minister at the age of 81.He headed the coalition Government .
Spouse : Gujraben Desai Children :Five
Parents : Ranchodji Desai, Vajiaben Desai
Education : Graduated from Bombay university Attended Wilson college
Books : Miracles of urine therapy, Nature Cure etc.
Honors received : Bharat ratna & Nishan-e-Pakistan
1.He was the first Chief minister to become prime Minister and Dy. Prime minister.
2.Improved relationship with neighbour and arch rival Pakistan and restored normal relations with China.
3.His Government undid many amendments made to constitution during emergency.
4.It made difficult for future Governments to impose National Emergency.
5.5.After India’s Nuclear Test in 1974 Desai kept India’s Nuclear reactor stating that ” they will never be used in atomic bombs and I will see to it if I can help it “
6.Ardent follower of mahatma Gandhi principles & Morals
7.He used to write Postcard himself as a Prime Minister.
8.He was Chancellor of Gujrat Vidyapith before becoming Prime Minister. So even after becoming prime Minister he used to visit and stay at vidyapith in October.
9 He withdrew intervention in Public Distribution System and Rationing shops literally hurt due to availability of cheap sugar and oil.
10.Conducting meeting with Farmers in Khaira District lead to establishment of Amul Cooperative movement.
11.He a practitioner of Urine Therapy and claimed it was a perfect medical solution to millions of Indians. He claimed that he drank a pint of his urine daily.
12. First leader not to represent Indian national congress party.
Date of death : 10.4.95 at the age of 99
5.Charan Singh the fifth/seventh prime Minister appointed by president Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy.
Date of Birth : 23.12.1902 at Noopur Uttar Pradesh
Parents : Not Known
Spouse : Smt. Gayathri Devi
Children : 6 children
Honors received : Champion of India’s Peasants
Books :The Gandhian blue Print, India’s Economic policy
He did not face the LokSabha even for a single day in his short tenure.
First of all abolished Landlordism and instilled economic and political power in few families.
Further, he was against casteism.
Moreover, he was appearing a Socialist by professing to nationalize the Sugar industry but in private he had gone into deal with sugar barons. The man appointed as receiver was cane inspector Mansingh his own brother.
Date of death :29.5.1984
6.Rajiv Gandhi was the seventh/ninth prime minister:
Tenure :31.10.1984 to 2.12.1989 appointed by President Zail Singh & R venkatraman
Date of Birth & Birth place : 20.8.1944 from Bombay presidency
Parents : Feroze Gandhi, Indira gandhi
Spouse : Sonia Gandhi
Children : Rahul, Priyanka
Brother : Sanjay
Honors received : Bharat ratna, Indira Gandhi Prize
Education : He did his schooling from Welham Boys School and Doons School and wanted to study A Levels. Also, he joined Trinity College of Cambridge for Engineering but did not complete. Further, ,worked as Professional Pilot for Indian Airlines.
He was the youngest Prime Minister till date.
He enhanced support for Science and technology.
Import Quotas reduced.
Tariffs and Taxes on industries based on technology particularly airlines. computer, telecommunications and defence reduced.
Launching of C DOT(Centre for development of Telematics) Wikipedia by sam pitroda in 1984.
Establishment of MTNL & VSNL telephones by Government.
52nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1985. Anti Defection law contained in the tenth schedule of Constitution amended. This put an end to then 35 years of legislative anarchism in India. It made floor crossing almost impossible.
To expand and modernise higher education programs he declared a National policy for Education in 1986.
He founded Jawaharlal Navodaya Vidyalaya system to educate rural section of society. It is a central Government institution which provides free residential education from 6th to 12th grade.
He ensured 25% reservation in Private educational Institutes
He started operation blackboard to improve educational infrastructure in primary schools all over India.
IGNOU Indira Gandhi National Open university was a by product of this policy.
In 1986 he created MTNL The special PCO in the rural sector was of increase help for the locals.
Reduce licence raj implemented. This helped individuals and business to acquire capital.
He was the founder of Panchayati raj and founder of Ministry for the environment. He introduced approval of Lok pal bill.
Introduced 108 emergency ambulance services.
100 days of employment for one member of every family in villages.
He imposed president Rule in Punjab and gave free hand to KPS Gill(DGP Punjab) and solved Punjab problem.
Achievement of high GDP growth Inspite of 3 consecutive drought situation in the country.
He laid the foundation fo Economic Liberalization.
He took steps to prevent brain drain and also brought back scientists and technocrats to India.
Assam Accord a memorandum of understanding signed between government of India and leaders of Assam movement over illegal migrant issue.
Punjab Accord signed between Rajiv Gandhi and Akali leader Harcharan Singh Longeval in 1985 and it was significant after anti Sikh riots
India Srilanka peace Accord :Rajiv Gandhi made sincere attempts to solve Tamil issue in Sri lanka.
His initiative to drive India towards modernism and his motivation to pull the masses out of poverty and dreamed of India becoming IT Super power.
Pioneer of Digital India and Computer man of India
Firstly he sowed the seed of eventful IT revolution and his speeches was the idea of taking India leap forward into the 21st century. He was sure that Technology drive can make it happen. He emphasized growth in two areas IT and Telecom.
Shah bano case
India peace Keeping Force going to Sri Lanka to save from LTTE
Bhopal tragedy where Anderson allowed to escape.
Died on 21.5.1991 he was just 46 years old death.
7.Shri V P Singh was the tenth Prime Minister of India
Tenure : 2.12.89 to 10.11.90 i.e. 343 days He appointed by president Venkatraman
date of Birth and place of birth : 25.06.1931 Allahabad
Parents : Raja Bahadur Ram Gopal Singh, Rani Raj Kanwar
Children & Spouse : Abhay Singh, Ajay Singh, Smt Sita Kumari
Educational Qualification : He graduated from Fergusson College, Pune
First of all, he started “Jan Morcha” to fight against corruption
Further,he created a coalition Front called National Front
Most noteworthy, he imposed Mandal Commission through which fixed quota reservation for socially backward castes called ‘ other backward classes’ raised from 27% to 49.5%
Moreover, he single handedly removed dacoity from Chambal region of Uttar Pradesh.
Also,he initiated telecom reforms in 1986.
Not only that,he also exposed the gold smugglers thriving in Konkan.
However he gained popularity because of his tussle with the Ambani’s and bachchan.
Shri Chandrashekar singh the ninth/eleventh prime minister appointed by President R Venkatraman
enure : 10.11.90 to 21.6.91 223 days
Date of irth & birthplace : 1.7.1927 ibrahimpatti
Spouse Smt Duja Devi
Parents : Children : Two children
Books Rahbari ke sawal, Heal your mind and body, My jail diary, Supreme Doctor etc.A newspaper “Young india ” started by him.
Education : Not known
Achievement: His handling the balance of payment situation successfully by hypothecating gold to IMF/World Bank.
He proved and showed to the world that Coalition governments do not last.
Shri P V Narsimha Rao the tenth/twelfth prime minister appointed by President R Venkatraman
Date of birth & Place of birth : 28.6.21 ,Hyderabad
First of all, photography produces image or picture called Photo.
furthermore, Dictionary.com defines photograph as an image of an object, person ,scene etc in the form of a print or slide. Moreover, camera records it on photosensitive material called as photo.
Generally Photo are taken by a photographer.
Thus, In these days mobiles ,selfies, WEB CAMERAS ETC are available to click.
history of photography
So, ACCORDING TO WIKIPEDIA SIR JOHN HERSCHEL IN 1839 COINS THIS WORD .
Now THE FIRST PERMANENT PHOTOGRAPH ,A CONTACT EXPOSED OF AN ENGRAVING WAS MADE IN 1822 USING BITUMEN BASED HELIOGRAPHY.
So, COLOUR photo IS AS OLD AS BLACK & WHITE SINCE 1842.
Also, NON DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPH INVOLVE TWO STEP CHEMICAL PROCESS CONVERTING NEGATIVE TO POSITIVE.
ORIGINALLY ALL WERE MONOCHROMATIC OR HAND PAINTED IN COLOUR
improvement in this field
THE INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTERS AND DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY HAS LED TO DIGITAL PRINTS.
SHARING OF PRINTS ON WWW IS POSSIBLE. This gives ideas for sure about event, travel etc from photograph.
STORE PHOTOGRAPH IN SEPERATE FOLDERS CONSTRUCTED FROM BUFFERED PAPER OR ACID FREE PAPER,
NOWADAYS POLYESTER ENCLOSURES ARE AVAILABLE FOR PRESERVING PHOTOGRAPH.
advantages of photo
photographs are sweet memories. preserving them handling with care are very crucial.
photographs act as proofs in many cases. PHOTOGRAPH MAGAZINES ARE ALSO AVAILABLE SHOWING PHOTOS OF ALL SPECIES, ALL PLACES, ALL INTERESTS.
If photographs were not there many of the facts pertaining to old and new would not be available. Even further developments like video, digital media, mass media , movies, art display, books to read etc would not be available.
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January is come . Thousands of pilgrims will go to Sabarimala temple in kerala as per sabarimala statistic i.e. Sabari hills in kerala, to view the makara vilakku or sabarimala temple jyothi. This Makara vilakku is a celestial light which is seen descending from the sky behind sabarimala for just two seconds. Some years back there was a dispute regarding this sabarimala temple issue. It was felt some tribals were lighting the bonfire behind the sabari hills . When the flames rises it looks like celestial light and so on. This too did not have any proper evidence. The sabarimala temple case was closed. EVEN TODAY THOUSANDS OF PILGRIMS FLOCK TO SABARIMALA TEMPLE TO SEE THIS CELESTIAL LIGHT.
Going to the SABARIMALA temple is not easy. The preparation starts before 45 days. On the first day the devotee gets up early takes bath and goes to nearby temple and offers puja to his family deity, ista devatas, ayappa and all navagrahas i.e. nine planets. The aspirant wears a beaded mala or chain made of tulsi or rudraksh to show he is away from material temptations and looks forward to visit sabarimala. This mala or chain is generally put on the lst day of vrichikam a month in Hindu calendar when the devotee starts yearning to go to sabarimala. AFTER PUTTING THE MALA THE ASPIRANT SURRENDERS HIS THOUGHT WORDS AND DEEDS TO THE POWERFUL DEITY AYAPPA and prepares for his visit to sabarimala temple yatra.
sabarimala temple rituals
First of all., Getting up early, taking bath three times, meditating, chanting slokas and sabrimala temple godname, singing praises of the lord becomes part of his daily schedule before going to sabarimala temple. Further, he shuns all social activities and immerses in visiting temples, feeding the poor & sick,listening to spiritual lectures before visiting sabarimala temple. Also,he is forbidden from eating meat, other non vegetarian foods including onion or garlic for going to sabarimala temple. Similarly,he abstains from taking alcohol,drugs,betel leaves and smoking to make him eligible to go to the shrine after sabarimala temple 18 steps. Also,he refrains from hurting anybody physically or verbally during the fortyfive days before visiting sabarimala temple. Even, he does not use slippers and does not sleep on bed for 41 days before going to sabarimala temple. When somebody takes the 41 day fast for visiting sabarimala temple he must go about it quietly without much ado so as not to cause any inconvenience to the family.
sabrimala temple rules
There are other events associated with this sabarimala pilgrimage like AAzhi puja and kettunira. AAzhi puja means the attainment of aspirants frame of mind and his perseverence to reach sabarimala temple. It is done before the holy trek to sabarimala temple begins. This ritual is also known as vellamkudi or drinking water in Malayalam or daham veppu means unquenched thirst in Malayalam language that means his unquenched thirst is satiated by his trip to sabarimala temple just like drinking water to quench thirst. Actually the aspirant begins this journey to sabarimala temple to get his material desires resolved.
sabarimala temple facts
41 days fast before going to sabarimala temple enables him to progress spiritually and these desires which are impediments to god realisation fades and his desire to reach sabarimala and see the god reaches saturating point. A pandal or tent is erected in some places where shasta preethi is held an function held before leaving for sabarimala temple. Fuels for aazhi is stored in front of the pandal and camphor is used to light fire by the devotees heading towards sabarimala temple. Riceflakes, parched rice, coconut,etc are put in this fire and all the devotees circumambulate saying ‘swamiye saranam ayyappa’ Gods name enabling you to reach sabarimala temple without any problem. The fire blazes reach the sky like celestial light of sabarimala. Some devotees in spiritual fervour to reach sabarimala temple walk through the blazes totally oblivious of the surrounding.
sabarimala temple dress code
Black Dhoti for males and black saree of females is the dress code followed in sabarimala.Kettunira means a travel kit which they carry on their heads while going to sabarimala temple. This contains sliced coconut with ghee, 2-3 coconuts, beaten rice, betel leaves , betel nuts, coins, jaggery, cashewnuts, raisins, cardamom, honey, turmeric, and dates as good deeds and sins to be surrendered at the foot of sabarimala temple god ayappa . These items are used to prepare neivaidya or offering to the god for sabarimala temple god ayappa after reaching sabarimala temple. Then the pilgrimage to sabarimala temple starts by going to all temples and in the end go beyond hills like erumeli, azutha, karimala and on reaching pampa which is the river below sabari hills.
sabarimala temple dispute
After taking bath in Pampa river the aspirant proceeds towards sabarimala temple to have a glimpse of the lord ayappa and this celestial light which is seen on January 14 every year. The whole year the shrine at sabarimala temple opening dates time for devotees are between 14 th and 17th of the month. Women between ages 11-40 are not allowed to enter sabarimala as it is their fertility age and sacredness of the shrine is to be protected. Now there is a sabarimala temple debate about women of all ages entering the Shrine at sabarimala temple.
sabarimala temple 18 steps
From pampa river the sabarimala temple route has several barriers like forests, small hills, rough roads say a distance of 5 kms covered in 5-6 hours depending on your speed to reach sabarimala temple. many snakes, wild beasts attack, on the way to sabarimala temple so people move in groups. the shrine is situated on the top and to reach the shrine the devotee has to climb 18 stairs which is called padinettu padi in Malayalam or sabarimala temple 18 steps.
sabarimala temple diety
Even after reaching sabarimala temple, the sabarimala temple 18 steps made of granite climbed. Very slippery in their rush to enter the sanctum sanctorum. In ritual padi puja steps decorated with flowers and lamps. There are two Gods in the same place. Dharma Shasta and Ayappa at sabarimala temple.
sabarimala temple mythology
Ayappa the lord of sabarimala temple is the son of lord Shiva and mohini I.e. Avatar of Vishnu. He was born at sabarimala to kill Mahishi a she buffalo demoness the sister of mahishasura the demon killed by durga during dussehra. Dharma sastha another lord of sabarimala a brahmachari or bachelor in this avatar even though the ancient scriptures called Purana describe Shasta having two consorts Pushkala & Poorna. To get more information about sabarimala temple you can visit sabarimalaayyappan.com http://www.sabarimalaayyappan.com/pilgrimage.htm
if you want to know details about sabarimala temple opening dates, time you can visit the aforesaid address.
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