What are the work of prime ministers and legacy left behind them
In this election season it is worthwhile to pay tribute to our honorable prime ministers and remember their achievements. We always remember our prominent prime ministers. To remember in chronological order is not possible. I decided to write this post. I have given links from where you can get sufficient details.
First of all, the prime Minister of India is the Chief executive of the Government of India. Further,President appoints the Prime Minister who is usually Head of party or alliance having majority in loksabha.
Now.a list of Prime Ministers of the Republic of India has 15 prime ministers, 17 including Gulzarilal Nanda who twice acted in the role.
1.The first prime minister of free India was Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
Birth date & Birth place : 14.11.1889 in Allahabad
His parents : A wealthy barrister Shri Motilal Nehru & Smt. Swaruprani
His spouse : Smt.Kamala Nehru a freedom fighter
His siblings : Vijayalakshmi pandit & Krishna Hutheesing
Jawaharla Nehru belonged to Kashmiri Pandit family.
His children : Smt. Indira Gandhi
Honors received : Bharat Ratna
He was prime minister from 1947 to 1964. From 15.8.1947 to 17.4.1957 he was prime minister for the first time and appointed by Lord Mountbatten. From 17.4.1957 to 27.5.1964 he was appointed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad the first President of Free India.
Education: He completed his studies as barrister in Great Britain and practiced in Allahabad high court.
His education was not much significant. further, home tuitions from Governess and tutors till he was 16 years old. Thereafter he went to Harrow a leading English school for two years. Then to Trinity college Cambridge to earn a honors degree in natural science. After leaving Cambridge, he qualified as a barrister. After two years of study in inner temple, London where in his own words he passed his exam with ‘neither glory nor ignominy’. He felt he was in half hazy world neither in England nor in India. He himself said’ I have become a queer mixture of East and West out of place everywhere at home nowhere’.
1.Modern values and ways of thinking to suit Indian conditions .
2. Ethnic and religious diversities was no obstacle to secularism and basic unity of India .
3. He introduced modern age of scientific discovery and technological development.
4. He aroused in his people an awareness of the necessity of social concern with the poor and the outcast and of respect for democratic values.
5. He brought reforms to the ancient Hindu civil code that finally enabled Hindu widows to enjoy equality with men in matters of inheritance and property.
6. He helped to frame the Indian constitution.
7. He helped in integrating the Indian Princely states into united India
8. he helped in resettling refugees post partition
9.Under his leadership election commission of India set up
10. He signed Indus water Treaty between India and Pakistan
11. Sound Foreign Policy was setup during his period.
12. Bhakra Nangal Dam
13. Bhilai Steel plant
14. Bhokaro steel limited
15. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre were all setup
16.Planning commission formulated India’s five-year plans initiated by Netaji Subash Chandra Bose. Jawaharlal Nehru appointed as chairman of Planning commission in 1950
17.Establishment of institutes of higher learning like All India Institute of medical sciences
18. Setting up of Indian institute of technology
19. Indian Institute of management set up.
20. Setting up of National institute of technology
Date of Death : 27.5.1964 (Heart attack)
2. The Second & Fourth prime Minister of Free India was Shri Gulzarilal nanda(acting)
He was prime minister from 27.05.1964 to 9.06.1964. Again he was prime Minister from 11.01.1966 to 24.01.1966. He appointed by Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan the second President of Free India.
Date of Birth : 4.7.1898 in PunjabParents: Shri Bulaqui Nanda, Smt. iswari Devi nandaSpouse: Smt.Lakshmichildren: Two sons and one daughtereducation : research scholar in labor problems from Allahabad University.
Bharat ratna, padma Vibushan Proud past Alumini from Allahabad University Alumini Associati
Served as prime minister for 13 days two terms first after death of Nehru in 1964 and Shastri in 1965 when country had suffered potential danger and serious threats after war with china in 1962 and war with Pakistan in 1965. Ban on slaughter of cows supported by him.
Date of death :15.01.1998 at the age of 99
3. The second/third Prime Minister of India is Lal Bahadur Shastri
He was Prime Minister from 9.06.1964 to 11.01.1966 appointed by president Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan.
Birth date & Birth Place:2.10.1904 at Mugalsarai
Wife : lalita Devi
Parents :Shri Sharada Prasad Shrivastava, Smt. Ramdulari Devi
Children : Anil, hari Krishna, Kusum,suman,sunil and Ashok
His education: He learned scriptures from kashi Vidyapeeth and became scholar. He was conferred the title Shastri
Honors received: Shastri, Bharat ratna
His achievements :
Signing of NO War agreement with president Ayub Khan of Pakistan
Firmness in the outbreak of hostilities with Pakistan over the disputed Kashmir region.
He coined the slogan jai Jawan jai Kisan
White revolution : formation of amul diary the leading diary in India Shastri Vrat : To give away one days meal to the poor
Green Revolution: Adoption of new methods of growing crops
Firm stand regarding Defence budget.
Tashkent declaration signed
Memorial ‘Vijay Ghat’ built after him. All other memorials built in his honor is available here
Date of Death : January11,1966 at Tashkent Uzbekistan (Heart attack)
4. The third/fifth & sixth/eighth Prime Minister of free India was Mrs Indira Gandhi
She was Prime Minister from 24.1.1966 to 24.3.1977 appointed by Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, V. V. Giri
Again she was Prime Minister from 14.1.1980 to 31.10.1984 appointed by Nilam Sanjeeva Reddy.
Birth date & Birth Place : 19.11.1917 at Allahabad
parents : Shri Jawaharlal Nehru & Smt. kamala Nehru
spouse : Shri Feroze Gandhi
children: Shri Rajiv Gandhi , Late Shri. Sanjay Gandhi
daughter in laws : Smt. Sonia Gandhi & Smt. Maneka Gandhi Grandsons : Rahul Gandhi & Varun Gandhi
grand daughter: Smt. Priyanka Gandhi vadra honors received : first stateswoman and first woman prime minister
Woman of the millennium. And Bharat ratna education :
First of all, she tutored at home till 1934 attending several schools intermittently till her matriculation. Then to Belur math headquarters of Ramakrishna Mission staying with her guardian swami Rangananda and studied in Visva Bharati institute in shanti Niketan. Thereafter attending oxford university to complete her graduation. But being weak in studies could not obtain her degree. But honored with a degree from oxford university
1. Facilitating the Green revolution. Shortage of food supply Norman Borlough’s Green revolution ideology adopted. Shifting of agriculture to industrial sector with the use of HYV seeds , tractors and advanced methods of farming .
2.Nationalising of 14 private sector Banks
3. Indo Pakistan war of 1971 Liberation of Bangla Desh
4. Shimla agreement signed between India and Pakistan which brought settlement of Kashmir issue through peaceful means and conversion of ceasefire line into line of control between India and Pakistan
5.Ending privy purse given to Royalties since 1947.
6.she nationalized the coal, steel, copper, refining, cotton textile industries.
7. Nationalisation of Oil industries
8. Garibi hatao
9. Her challenge to the syndicate, the group of provincial satraps of the congress.
10. Smiling Buddha Nuclear Test.
11.Declaration of emergency in 1975
12 operation blue star to strip clean the golden temple
13 Second lady head after Sirimavo Bandaranayke
14 Endorsement of ZOPFAN Declaration and disintegration of SEATO alliance to revive ties with south east Asian countries.
15. She made changes in constitution relating to wages Equal wages for equal work to both men and women.
16. She shared strong ties with Soviet Union and strained ties with United states.
17. Meghalaya, Manipur, Haryana, Tripura, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh given statehood. Chandigarh and Arunachala Pradesh treated as Union territories.
18.India included in Soviet space program Interkosmos where First Indian Rakesh kumar Sharma landed in space.
19. She was openly against Israel in their war with Palestine.
20.She was Iron lady of India. Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee compared her to Goddess Durga.
21. She was a very good friend of Britain’s Lady Margaret Thatcher
22.Refusal to bow down to hegemony of America thereby resulting in refusal of food and other aids to India unless India supported America in their war against Vietnam.
23.India’s decisive victory over Pakistan in the war of 1971.
24.Launching of operation flood the world’s biggest diary development program which resulted in milk deficient India to surpass USA in milk production.
25. For Insurgency in Nagaland Indira Gandhi unleashed a powerful military offensive.
26.Indian army crush Militant communist uprising
27.Air strikes in its own civilian territory during Mizo uprising
28.Presiding over three five-year plans as prime minister two of which succeeded in meeting targeted growth.
She assassinated on 31.101984 by her own body guard.
4. Morarji Desai the fourth/sixth prime minister appointed by President Basappa Danappa Jatti (acting) Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy
Date of Birth & Birthplace : 29.2.1896 at Valsad Bombay Presidency
Tenure :1977 to 1979 he became prime minister at the age of 81.He headed the coalition Government .
Spouse : Gujraben Desai Children :Five
Parents : Ranchodji Desai, Vajiaben Desai
Education : Graduated from Bombay university Attended Wilson college
Books : Miracles of urine therapy, Nature Cure etc.
Honors received : Bharat ratna & Nishan-e-Pakistan
1.He was the first Chief minister to become prime Minister and Dy. Prime minister.
2.Improved relationship with neighbour and arch rival Pakistan and restored normal relations with China.
3.His Government undid many amendments made to constitution during emergency.
4.It made difficult for future Governments to impose National Emergency.
5.5.After India’s Nuclear Test in 1974 Desai kept India’s Nuclear reactor stating that ” they will never be used in atomic bombs and I will see to it if I can help it “
6.Ardent follower of mahatma Gandhi principles & Morals
7.He used to write Postcard himself as a Prime Minister.
8.He was Chancellor of Gujrat Vidyapith before becoming Prime Minister. So even after becoming prime Minister he used to visit and stay at vidyapith in October.
9 He withdrew intervention in Public Distribution System and Rationing shops literally hurt due to availability of cheap sugar and oil.
10.Conducting meeting with Farmers in Khaira District lead to establishment of Amul Cooperative movement.
11.He a practitioner of Urine Therapy and claimed it was a perfect medical solution to millions of Indians. He claimed that he drank a pint of his urine daily.
12. First leader not to represent Indian national congress party.
Date of death : 10.4.95 at the age of 99
5.Charan Singh the fifth/seventh prime Minister appointed by president Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy.
Date of Birth : 23.12.1902 at Noopur Uttar Pradesh
Parents : Not Known
Spouse : Smt. Gayathri Devi
Children : 6 children
Honors received : Champion of India’s Peasants
Books :The Gandhian blue Print, India’s Economic policy
He did not face the LokSabha even for a single day in his short tenure.
First of all abolished Landlordism and instilled economic and political power in few families.
Further, he was against casteism.
Moreover, he was appearing a Socialist by professing to nationalize the Sugar industry but in private he had gone into deal with sugar barons. The man appointed as receiver was cane inspector Mansingh his own brother.
Date of death :29.5.1984
6.Rajiv Gandhi was the seventh/ninth prime minister:
Tenure :31.10.1984 to 2.12.1989 appointed by President Zail Singh & R venkatraman
Date of Birth & Birth place : 20.8.1944 from Bombay presidency
Parents : Feroze Gandhi, Indira gandhi
Spouse : Sonia Gandhi
Children : Rahul, Priyanka
Brother : Sanjay
Honors received : Bharat ratna, Indira Gandhi Prize
Education : He did his schooling from Welham Boys School and Doons School and wanted to study A Levels. Also, he joined Trinity College of Cambridge for Engineering but did not complete. Further, ,worked as Professional Pilot for Indian Airlines.
He was the youngest Prime Minister till date.
He enhanced support for Science and technology.
Import Quotas reduced.
Tariffs and Taxes on industries based on technology particularly airlines. computer, telecommunications and defence reduced.
Launching of C DOT(Centre for development of Telematics) Wikipedia by sam pitroda in 1984.
Establishment of MTNL & VSNL telephones by Government.
52nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1985. Anti Defection law contained in the tenth schedule of Constitution amended. This put an end to then 35 years of legislative anarchism in India. It made floor crossing almost impossible.
To expand and modernise higher education programs he declared a National policy for Education in 1986.
He founded Jawaharlal Navodaya Vidyalaya system to educate rural section of society. It is a central Government institution which provides free residential education from 6th to 12th grade.
He ensured 25% reservation in Private educational Institutes
He started operation blackboard to improve educational infrastructure in primary schools all over India.
IGNOU Indira Gandhi National Open university was a by product of this policy.
In 1986 he created MTNL The special PCO in the rural sector was of increase help for the locals.
Reduce licence raj implemented. This helped individuals and business to acquire capital.
He was the founder of Panchayati raj and founder of Ministry for the environment. He introduced approval of Lok pal bill.
Introduced 108 emergency ambulance services.
100 days of employment for one member of every family in villages.
He imposed president Rule in Punjab and gave free hand to KPS Gill(DGP Punjab) and solved Punjab problem.
Achievement of high GDP growth Inspite of 3 consecutive drought situation in the country.
He laid the foundation fo Economic Liberalization.
He took steps to prevent brain drain and also brought back scientists and technocrats to India.
Assam Accord a memorandum of understanding signed between government of India and leaders of Assam movement over illegal migrant issue.
Punjab Accord signed between Rajiv Gandhi and Akali leader Harcharan Singh Longeval in 1985 and it was significant after anti Sikh riots
India Srilanka peace Accord :Rajiv Gandhi made sincere attempts to solve Tamil issue in Sri lanka.
His initiative to drive India towards modernism and his motivation to pull the masses out of poverty and dreamed of India becoming IT Super power.
Pioneer of Digital India and Computer man of India
Firstly he sowed the seed of eventful IT revolution and his speeches was the idea of taking India leap forward into the 21st century. He was sure that Technology drive can make it happen. He emphasized growth in two areas IT and Telecom.
- Shah bano case
- India peace Keeping Force going to Sri Lanka to save from LTTE
- Bofors Scandal
- Bhopal tragedy where Anderson allowed to escape.
- Died on 21.5.1991 he was just 46 years old death.
7.Shri V P Singh was the tenth Prime Minister of India
Tenure : 2.12.89 to 10.11.90 i.e. 343 days He appointed by president Venkatraman
date of Birth and place of birth : 25.06.1931 Allahabad
Parents : Raja Bahadur Ram Gopal Singh, Rani Raj Kanwar
Children & Spouse : Abhay Singh, Ajay Singh, Smt Sita Kumari
Educational Qualification : He graduated from Fergusson College, Pune
First of all, he started “Jan Morcha” to fight against corruption
Further,he created a coalition Front called National Front
Most noteworthy, he imposed Mandal Commission through which fixed quota reservation for socially backward castes called ‘ other backward classes’ raised from 27% to 49.5%
Moreover, he single handedly removed dacoity from Chambal region of Uttar Pradesh.
Also,he initiated telecom reforms in 1986.
Not only that,he also exposed the gold smugglers thriving in Konkan.
However he gained popularity because of his tussle with the Ambani’s and bachchan.
Shri Chandrashekar singh the ninth/eleventh prime minister appointed by President R Venkatraman
enure : 10.11.90 to 21.6.91 223 days
Date of irth & birthplace : 1.7.1927 ibrahimpatti
Spouse Smt Duja Devi
Parents : Children : Two children
Books Rahbari ke sawal, Heal your mind and body, My jail diary, Supreme Doctor etc.A newspaper “Young india ” started by him.
Education : Not known
His handling the balance of payment situation successfully by hypothecating gold to IMF/World Bank.
He proved and showed to the world that Coalition governments do not last.
Shri P V Narsimha Rao the tenth/twelfth prime minister appointed by President R Venkatraman
Date of birth & Place of birth : 28.6.21 ,Hyderabad
Tenure : 21.6.91 to 16.5.1996 4 yrs 33 days
Parents : Pamulapurthi Sitarama Rao, Pamulapurthi Rukmani
Spouse : Satyamma Rao
Children : Eight
Education : Graduation from Osmania University
Law from Hislop College
Honors received : Father of Indian Economic reforms
Chanakya of Modern India
First of all,he knew ten Indian languages and seven foreign languages
Secondly, he was the first non Hindi speaking prime minister
Further,he along with Shri Man Mohan Singh shaped India’s New Economic Policy saving the country from Debt and Economic Crisis.
Foreign Direct Investments encouraged.
Efforts made to privatize public sector and reduce fiscal deficit.
Introduction of SEBI Act of 1992.
Pokhran Nuclear test done successfully.
Starting national Stock Exchange as a Computer based trading system in 1994 which served as an instrument to leverage reforms of India’s other stock exchange.
streamlining procedure for foreign direct investment
Rao launched Look East foreign policy which brought India closer to ASEAN
Babri Mosque riots , Bombay blasts, Latur earthquake all took place in his tenure and applauded for dealing with this tactfully by using modern technology, and resources to deal with the situations.
Date of Death :30.11.1992 92 years old
Atal Bihari Vajpayee was the eleventh/thirteenth prime minister first time and fourteenth/sixteenth prime minister second time
He appointed by President S.D.Sharma first time and President K R Narayan second time
Tenure : 1st time 16.5.1996 -1.06.19960 i.e. 16 days
2nd time 19.3.1998 to 10.10.1922.214.171.1249 to 22.5.2004
D/Birth & Birthplace : 25.12.1924 ,Gwalior
Parents : Krishna Devi & Krishna Bihari Vajpayee
Education : He did his graduation in Hindi, English, Sanskrit from Victoria College, Gwalior. He did his MA in Political Science from DAV college Kanpur. He interested in foreign affairs.